Month: December 2013
So what is the SCRAP Experiment really about? Well, let us try to do a reasonable summary of the experiment and the REXUS/BEXUS programme.
The title SCRAP stands for “Scattering of Radar waves on Aerosols in Plasmas”. The short description is:
“SCRAP is a student experiment, part of the REXUS programme under DLR and SNSB, and studies electron density fluctuations in dusty mesospheric plasmas.”
…but maybe that doesn’t really give you that much information.
Let’s give a longer description as well (That can also be found on our Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/SCRAPexperiment).
“The scientific objective of SCRAP is the validation of the theories on electron density fluctuations in dusty plasmas by measuring the scattering of ultra-high frequency radio waves on a cloud of metallic microparticles spread in the mesospheric plasma. These theories are often used as a basis to reconstruct the characteristics of mesospheric aerosols (mainly particle size, charge and number density) from indirect measurements, such as electron and ion density fluctuations obtained from radar and optical observations, or mass spectrometry.
These indirect methods are unavoidable, since the actual collection and preservation of mesospheric particles is subject to the technical difficulty to perform experiments in the mesosphere and a high risk of contamination. By using the ground-based incoherent scatter radar system EISCAT to observe a cloud of calibrated mesospheric dust particles, the SCRAP experiment proposes to relate theoretical predictions to a controlled object. The results would also provide a new insight on phenomena such as polar mesospheric summer echoes, anomalous radar echoes which are thought to be caused by mesospheric clouds of ice particles.”
If you feel even more confused by the explanation above, just keep reading. It should become clearer as you continue reading.
We are a team of 11 KTH students and PHD’s with academic supervisors from both KTH (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan) and SU (Stockholm University). The idea was born by Dr. Nickolay Ivchenko of the Department of Space & Plasma Physics at the School of Electrical Engineering, KTH, in collaboration with Dr. Gunnar Tibert of the Department of Mechanics at the School of Engineering Sciences, KTH.
Trying to avoid too many of the irrelevant details you could simply say that what we want to do is to measure the radar backscatter from a cloud of well-defined (size, material etc.) aerosol particles released in the mesosphere (the part of the atmosphere at altitude around 50 to 100 km) and compare to the theoretical predictions derived from current models.
An example of effects of micro particles in the mesosphere are the so called “Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE)” that are believed to be caused by ice particles forming in the upper atmosphere which get charged by the radiation from the sun. This causes the radar backscattering (e.g. echoes, the radar waves bouncing back to the transmitter) that can be observed, especially during summer, and especially around the polar caps. That explains the name “Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes”. The increasingly frequent PMSE’s are believed to be an indicator of the global climate change, meaning that a proper understanding of this phenomenon could be most beneficial for predictions about the global climate. Many models exist to predict how this phenomena works, but experimental data is limited. That is what the SCRAP experiment aims to change.
The experiment will deploy two identical free flying units or FFU’s (essentially two discs launched in either direction from the rocket) from the rocket module. The units will release metal dust close to the apogee (highest point, roughly at around 80-90 km) of the rocket. Two alternative methods for the release of the dust are being investigated. The first method is to spray liquid suspension of the metal dust through a nozzle (like an aerosol can). The second method is to spread the metal dust using gun powder.
When the metal particles are released in the mesosphere the EISCAT radar (see http://www.eiscat.se for more info) in Tromsø, Norway will aim its mighty beam at the cloud and send a powerful signal (more than 2 MW of peak power! ) that bounces back (backscatters) from the charged particles. By measuring this backscatter, analyzing the data, comparing with theoretical models and doing other sciency stuff the team will be able to validate (or potentially falsify) the current models on mesospheric aerosols.
But in order to do all this we need a rocket to fly on, and that’s where the REXUS/BEXUS programme comes in to the picture.
The REXUS/BEXUS programme is realized under a bilateral Agency Agreement between the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), now in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA). The programme gives a few different student teams from ESA member countries the opportunity to launch their rocket experiment on a REXUS sounding rocket or a BEXUS high altitude balloon from Esrange in Kiruna. If all goes as planned, the SCRAP experiment will fly with the Swedish REXUS rocket, an unguided, spin-stabilized rocket powered by an Improved Orion Motor, in the spring of 2015. For more information on the REXUS/BEXUS programme see http://www.rexusbexus.net.
The experiment is currently in a “Design & Research” phase and, as is written above, several different concepts for the dust release system are being explored. In February the team will hand in the first version of the “Student Experiment Document” and by then the preliminary design will be set.
So it might be a good idea to share with you the very recent developments for the REXUS SCRAP experiment, namely that we are now SELECTED! Out of the 9 presentations during the selection workshop (and of course out of the several other experiments that didn’t even make it that far) we proved ourselves to be one of the 4 best. Good job to everyone in the SCRAP team:
and Team Leader Hannah Lindberg.
Here’s hoping for an interesting 2 years ahead, including both hard work, but also success and team spirit.
Thursday 5 December
08:00 – 08:30 Bus from Hotel to ESTEC
08:30 – 08:40 Organisational announcements
08:40 – 09:20 REXUS Proposal 3: FELDs
09:20 – 10:00 REXUS Proposal 4: Gekko-R
10:00 – 10:40 REXUS Proposal 5: HYPER LANDERS
10:40 – 11:00 Coffee break
11:00 – 11:40 REXUS Proposal 6: PHOS
11:40 – 12:20 REXUS Proposal 7: REM-RED
12:20 – 13:00 REXUS Proposal 8: SCRAP
13:00 – 14:00 Lunch break
14:00 – 14:40 REXUS Proposal 9: WUSAT-SOLSPEC
14:40 – 14:50 REXUS/BEXUS TeamSite – Simon Mawn (ZARM)
14:50 – 15:05 Student Training Week and PDRs at SSC Esrange Space Center – Alexander Kinnaird (SSC)
15:05 – 15:25 Preparing for PDR – Steps to a Successful Review – Nora Newie (ESA)
15:25 – 15:30 Conclusions and last remarks – Natacha Callens (ESA)
15:45 Bus from ESTEC hotel (drop-off only) and Schiphol airport
15:45 – 17:45 Meeting of Selection Board to review REXUS proposals – Aj019
So finally we have some time to update our social medias, which does feel rather relevant at the moment, seeming as the selection workshop has come to its end and the SCRAP team has already held their presentation some time ago. Anyway, the presentation left the team feeling positive. The team was able to give a stable presentation and also answer all panels questions in a convincing manner. Now it’s up to the panel and all the team can do is wait and keep working.
The time after the presentation left the SCRAP team somewhat shaken however. Seeming as this blog is (after all) a blog mostly for updates regarding the experiment the description of the events following the presentation will be somewhat summarized. Due to the storm (which we had a very close encounter with, almost leading to the loss of one of the member’s luggage) the flight to Stockholm got cancelled leaving the team stranded in Amsterdam. Finding a decent and inexpensive hotel in Amsterdam during a weekend is somewhat of a challenge however, as the team soon learnt. I wouldn’t want to tell you the strange places we’ve stayed at these last few days. As it seems now we will not be returning to Sweden until Sunday afternoon, and I sure do hope nothing will go wrong this time.
Sorry for the lack of updates, but currently the SCRAP team is in a crap situation. We’ll keep you posted, if we survive…
Thanks to Birgitta Karlsson for saving us. Without you the SCRAP experiment would never take place, because we’d all be stuck in low standard hostels in Amsterdam forever.
Wednesday 4 December
08:00 – 08:30 Bus from Hotel to ESTEC
08:15 – 08:30 Meeting of Selection Board
08:40 – 08:50 Introduction of the Selection Board
08:50 – 09:20 Organisers of the REXUS/BEXUS Programme – Kristine Dannenberg (on behalf of SNSB, DLR, SSC, ZARM, ESA)
09:20 – 09:50 Introduction to SSC Science Services, ESRANGE and REXUS/BEXUS –Alexander Kinnaird and Christian Lockowandt (SSC)
09:50– 10:30 BEXUS Proposal 1: A5-Unibo
10:30 – 11:00 Coffee break
11:00 – 11:40 BEXUS Proposal 2: CzechTechSat
11:40 – 12:20 BEXUS Proposal 3: GranaSAT
12:20 – 13:00 BEXUS Proposal 4: POLARIS
13:00 – 14:00 Lunch break
14:00 – 14:40 BEXUS Proposal 5: TORMES 2.0
14:40 – 15:20 REXUS Proposal 1: APROPOS: PHAROS
15.20 – 16.00 REXUS Proposal 2: ASYN-G
16:00 – 16:15 Walk to the Erasmus Building
16:15 – 17:15 Tour: Erasmus User Centre for the International Space Station
- 3 groups on rotation
17:20 Bus from ESTEC to Hotel
Second day at ESTEC complete, but we (the SCRAP team) didn’t really do much. Today was the first day of proposal presentations, but mostly only BEXUS proposals. There were two REXUS proposals at the end though which means that we now know some of the biggest pitfalls for our presentation tomorrow. That’s one of the advantages of presenting second last 😉 After all the proposal presentations were done we did have time for some fun however during the tour of ESTEC. We got to see many interesting pieces of old space hardware that we could “investigate” (read: poke at). Time to do a spurt for the presentation tomorrow. Double checks, final revisions and final rehearsals, and then it’s just up to fate. Wish us luck!
REXUS / BEXUS Selection Workshop
3-5 December 2013
ESA-ESTEC, Room Newton 1
Tuesday 3 December (Training afternoon)
Morning Arrival and Registration
13:30 – 14:15 Welcome and Introduction – Natacha Callen
14:15 – 15:30 Start Documenting a Space Project – Requirements & Verification – Koen Debeule
15:30 – 15:45 Coffee break
15:45 – 16:30 Planning your Project – Natacha Callens
16:30 – 17:30 Designing your Experiment – Koen Debeule
17:30 – 18:00 The Student Experiment Documentation (SED) – Nora Newie
18:00 Bus from ESTEC to Hotel
So, first day at ESTEC complete with presentations held by a trio of interesting speakers talking about everything between project organization and mechanics. Koen Debeule gave us an interesting insight into the reality of ESA Space projects. Now that we know everything we’ve done wrong it’s time to start over and correct all the mistakes in the presentation. SCRAP team pulling an all-nighter and hopefully standing strong until Thursday evening. 😉